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Phase Five: Monitoring and Evaluation

LDN monitoring is based on three sub-indicators, land cover trend, land productivity, and soil organic carbon stocks. Complementary indicators are recommended to develop a comprehensive understanding of land health. Monitoring and evaluation focus on identifying extenuating factors that may influence planning outcomes, and adjust plans accordingly in the next planning cycle.


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EO data tool used to assess the status of the three LDN indicators, both for initial assessment and monitoring of implementation progress

Trends.Earth — Trends.Earth 2.0.1 documentation

Visual Soil/Vegetation Guides

Support expert judgement for rapid assessment of land condition (quality dependent on expert experience); produce estimations, not measurements

SPI Objective 1 Technical Report_Advance Copy_Final_6May2022.pdf (unccd.int) - pp 112

Siting Tool

Combines spatial assessment and field measurements; desk study identifies optimal sampling sites or local of sensitive areas for a range of indicators; can be used to identify hotspots of change for further investigation to reveal underlying drivers

SPI Objective 1 Technical Report_Advance Copy_Final_6May2022.pdf (unccd.int) - pp 112


Tool facilitating systematic assessment by local experts encompassing key indicators and additional region-specific indicators (biophysical, socio-economic); both for initial assessment and monitoring of implementation progress



Crowd-sourcing tool allowing participants to autonomously enter observations/knowledge in a web application, for initial appraisal and monitoring (feedback from local stakeholders)

Home - LandPKS (landpotential.org)


Participatory land use planning tool that integrates LDN and is applicable to all LUP phases

LUP4LDN – Land Usage Planning for LDN (scio.services)

Transect Walks

Tool wherein experts and locals travel through an area, documenting landscape/land profile on a map (incl. land degradation extent)

SPI Objective 1 Technical Report_Advance Copy_Final_6May2022.pdf (unccd.int) - pp 116 / Tool Name: Transect walk (worldbank.org)

Questionnaire on Sustainable Land Management Technologies

Surveying tool and database to gather data on available land management technologies and their implementation; Involves interviewing land users on technology applicability and impact, inputs and costs + natural, human environment


Locality mapping

Stakeholders individually/as a group map out a geographic unit containing boundaries and key features; final map contains features agreed upon by all stakeholders via discussion

Locality Mapping | SSWM - Find tools for sustainable sanitation and water management!

Context and community mapping

Similar to locality mapping, but begins with expert mapping of land cover, incl. key uses, based on aerial imagery of area; local farmers then provide key points of interest on maps/satellite images (e.g. relating to land tenure); Alternative: Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration framework

SPI Objective 1 Technical Report_Advance Copy_Final_6May2022.pdf (unccd.int) - pp 117

Focus groups

Tool for compiling local land use knowledge and related aspects (incl. Land degradation); can be supported by visual representation of land degradation indicator trends

SPI Objective 1 Technical Report_Advance Copy_Final_6May2022.pdf (unccd.int) - pp 117

Collect Earth

Open-source satellite image viewing and interpretation system providing land cover and land use reference data for classifying and monitoring land

Collect Earth - Desktop Version 

Collect Earth - Online Version 


System for land monitoring w/ access to earth observation data, processing and analysis, suitable for local needs



Open-source cloud-based database (geospatial/earth observation data) for mapping and monitoring sustainable use of natural resources

Home - MapX

WOCAT Earth Engine Apps

Set of spatially-explicit tools that help identify priority areas for implementation of sustainable management practices and integration of indicators for monitoring and evaluation; specific to LDN

Earth Engine Apps

Evaluating Land Management Options (ELMO)

Tool for assessing farmers’ preferences and perceptions of pros, cons, and tradeoffs between different land management practices (participatory stakeholder engagement tool)

Guide to ELMO 2015-11-08.pdf (cgiar.org)

Earth Observation for the SDGs (EO4SDGs)

Presents information on the potential for EO to contribute to SDGs w/ example cases

E04SDG (eo4sdg.org)